Carriage by Air (Overseas Territories) Order 1967

Chapter number: 
22
In force: 
Yes

 

EDITORS' NOTE: The digital versions of legislation accessible through SeyLII are UNOFFICIAL and provided solely in the interests of increasing access to legal information.  Their currency and accuracy cannot be warranted.  Official versions of Seychelles legislation can only be obtained in hard copy from the Attorney-General’s Chambers, Department of Legal Affairs

 

CONSOLIDATED TO 30 JUNE 2012

 

LAWS OF SEYCHELLES

 

CHAPTER 22

Act 30 of 1980

Act 9 of 1991

Act 9 of 1997

 

CARRIAGE BY AIR (OVERSEAS TERRITORIES) ORDER 1967

 

[1st June, 1967]

 

 

                                        ARRANGEMENT OF ARTICLES

Article

  1.          Citation

  2.          Interpretation.

  3.          Revocation.

  4.          Extension of certain provisions of Act 1961 to Overseas Territories.

  5.          Extension of certain provisions of Act 1962 to Overseas Territories.

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

ADAPTED AND MODIFIED PROVISIONS OF ACT OF 1961

 

First Annex

 

THE AMENDED CONVENTION

 

Second Annex

 

PROVISIONS AS TO LIABILITY OF CARRIER IN THE EVENT OF THE DEATH OF A PASSENGER

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

ADAPTED AND MODIFIED PROVISIONS OF ACT OF 1962

 

Annex

 

THE GUADALAJARA CONVENTION

 

 

1.      This Order may be cited as the Carriage by Air (Overseas Territories) Order 1967.

 

2.            (1)        In this Order, unless the context otherwise requires ?

 

"the Act of 1961" means the Carriage by Air Act 1961 of the United Kingdom;

 

"the Act of 1962" means the Carriage by Air (Supplementary Provisions) Act 1962 of the United Kingdom;

 

"the amended Convention" means the English text of the Convention concerning international carriage by air known as "the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague 1955" the provisions of which are set out in the First Annex to Schedule 1 to this Order, and includes the Additional Protocol to the Warsaw Convention as set out at the end of that Annex;

 

"the Guadalajara Convention" means the English text of the Convention supplementary to the Warsaw Convention, for the unification of certain rules relating to international carriage by air performed by a person other than the contracting carrier as set out in the Schedule to the Act of 1962;

 

"the Warsaw Convention" means the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on 12th October, 1929.

 

(2)        The Interpretation Act 1889* of the United Kingdom shall apply, with the necessary adaptations, for the purpose of interpreting this Order and otherwise in relation thereto as it applies for the purpose of interpreting, and in relation to, Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom.

 

3.            The provisions of section 1(1), subsections (1), (2) and (3) of section 2, sections 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13 and 14(2) of the Act of 1961, subject to certain adaptations and modifications, as set out in schedule 1 to this Order, are extended to Seychelles.

 

4.            (1)        The provisions of section 1(1), subsections (1)(b) and (2) of section 2, and sections 3 and 6 of the Act of 1962, subject to certain adaptations and modifications, as set out in schedule 2 to this Order, are extended to Seychelles.

 

(2)        In the said schedule 2 to this Order references to the Act of 1961 shall be construed as references to that Act subject to the adaptations and modifications referred to in Article 3 of this Order.

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

[Article 3]

 

ADAPTED AND MODIFIED PROVISIONS OF ACT OF 1961

 

1.      (1)        The provisions of the amended Convention as set out in the First Annex to this schedule shall, so far as they relate to the rights and liabilities of carriers, carriers' servants and agents, passengers, consignors, consignees and other persons, and subject to the provisions of this schedule, have the force of law in Seychelles in relation to any carriage by air to which the amended Convention applies, irrespective of the nationality of the aircraft performing that carriage.

 

2.      (1)        The President may by Order from time to time certify who are the High Contracting Parties to the amended Convention, in respect of what territories they are respectively parties and to what extent they have availed themselves of the provisions of the Additional Protocol at the end of the amended Convention as set out in the First Annex to this schedule.

 

(2)        Paragraph (2) of Article 40A in the First Annex to this schedule shall not be read as extending references in that Annex to the territory of a High Contracting Party (except such as are references to the territory of any State, whether High Contracting Party or not) to include any territory in respect of which that High Contracting Party is not a party.

 

(3)        An Order under this section shall, except so far as it has been superseded by a subsequent Order, be conclusive evidence of the matters so certified.

 

3.      Any liability imposed by Article 17 in the First Annex to this schedule on a carrier in respect of the death of a passenger shall be in substitution for any liability of the carrier in respect of the death of that passenger either under any enactment or at common law and the provisions set out in the Second Annex to this schedule shall have effect with respect to the persons by whom and for whose benefit the liability so imposed is enforceable and with respect to the manner in which it may be enforced.

 

4.      (1)        It is hereby declared that the limitations on liability in Article 22 in the First Annex to this schedule apply whatever the nature of the proceedings by which liability may be enforced and that, in particular ?

 

(a)                those limitations apply where proceedings are brought by a tort feasor to obtain a contribution from another tortfeasor, and

 

(b)               the limitation for each passenger in paragraph (1) of the said Article 22 applies to the aggregate liability of the carrier in all proceedings which may be brought against him under the law of the Seychelles together with any proceedings brought against him outside Seychelles.

 

(2)        A court before which proceedings are brought to enforce a liability which is limited by the said Article 22 may at any stage of the proceedings make any such order as appears to the court to be just and equitable in view of the provisions of the said Article 22, and of any other proceedings which have been, or are likely to be, commenced in Seychelles or elsewhere to enforce the liability in whole or in part.

 

(3)        Without prejudice to the last foregoing subsection, a court before which proceedings are brought to enforce a liability which is limited by the said Article 22 shall, where the liability is, or may be, partly enforceable in other proceedings in Seychelles or elsewhere, have jurisdiction to award an amount less than the court would have awarded if the limitation applied solely to the proceedings before the court, or to make any part of its award conditional on the result of any other proceedings.

 

(4)        The Minister may, in such manner as he may think fit, from time to time, specify the respective amounts which for the purposes of the said Article 22, and in particular of paragraph (5) of that Article, are to be taken as equivalent to the sums expressed in francs which are mentioned in that Article.

 

(5)        References in this section to the said Article 22 include, subject to any necessary modifications, references to that Article as applied by Article 25A.

 

5.      (1)        No action against a carrier's servant or agent which arises out of damage to which the amended Convention relates shall, if he was acting within the scope of his employment, be brought after more than two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.

 

(2)        Article 29 in the First Annex to this schedule shall not be read as applying to any proceedings for contribution between tortfeasors, but no action shall be brought by a tortfeasor to obtain a contribution from a carrier in respect of a tort to which the said Article 29 applies after the expiration of two years from the time when judgment is obtained against the person seeking to obtain the contribution.

 

(3)        The foregoing provisions of this section and the provisions of the said Article 29 shall have effect as if references in those provisions to an action included references to an arbitration.

 

7.      (1)        The President may from time to time by Order direct that this section shall apply, or shall cease to apply, to Seychelles or any other State specified in the Order.

 

(2)        The amended Convention as set out in the First Annex to this schedule shall not apply to the carriage of persons, cargo and baggage for the military authorities of a State to which this section applies in aircraft registered in that State if the whole capacity of the aircraft has been reserved by or on behalf of those authorities.

 

8.      Every High Contracting Party to the amended Convention who has not availed himself of the provisions of the Additional Protocol at the end of the amended Convention as set out in the First Annex to this schedule shall, for the purposes of  any action brought in a court in Seychelles in accordance with the provisions of Article 28 in the said First annex to enforce a claim in respect of carriage undertaken by him, be deemed to have submitted to the jurisdiction of that court, and accordingly rules of court may provide for the manner in which any such action is to be commenced and carried on; but nothing in this section shall authorise the issue of execution against the property of any High Contracting Party.

 

13.    This Act shall bind the Republic.

 

14.    (2)        In this Act the expression "court" includes (in an arbitration allowed by the amended Convention) an arbitrator.

 

First Annex to Schedule 1

 

THE AMENDED CONVENTION

 

Convention

 

For the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage

 

CHAPTER 1

 

SCOPE ? DEFINITIONS

 

Article 1

 

(1)        This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward.  It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.

 

(2)        For the purposes of this Convention, the expression international carriage means any carriage in which, according to the agreement between the parties, the place of departure and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within the territories of two High Contracting Parties or within the territory of a single High Contracting Party if there is an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State, even if that State is not a High Contracting Party.  Carriage between two points within the territory of a single High Contracting Party without an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State is not international carriage for the purposes of this Convention.

 

(3)        Carriage to be performed by several successive air carriers is deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one undivided carriage if it has been regarded by the parties as a single operation, whether it had been agreed upon under the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it does not lose its international character merely because one contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely within the territory of the same State.

 

Article 2

 

(1)         This Convention applies to carriage performed by the State or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in Article 1.

 

(2)         This Convention shall not apply to carriage of mail and postal packages.

 

CHAPTER II

 

DOCUMENTS OF CARRIAGE

 

SECTION 1. ? PASSENGER TICKET

 

Article 3

 

(1)        In respect of the carriage of passengers a ticket shall be delivered containing:

 

(a)    an indication of the places of departure and destination;

 

(b)               if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;

 

(c)                a notice to the effect that, if the passenger's journey involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers for death or personal injury and in respect of loss of or damage to baggage.

 

(2)        The passenger ticket shall constitute prima facie evidence of the conclusion and conditions of the contract of carriage.  The absence, irregularity or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, none the less, be subject to the rules of this Convention.  Nevertheless, if, with the consent of the carrier, the passenger embarks without a passenger ticket having been delivered, or if the ticket does not include the notice required by paragraph (1)(c) of this Article, the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22.

 

SECTION 2 ? BAGGAGE CHECK

 

Article 4

 

(1)        In respect of the carriage of registered baggage, a baggage check shall be delivered, which, unless combined with or incorporated in a passenger ticket which complies with the provisions of Article 3, paragraph (1) shall contain:

 

(a)    an indication of the places of departure and destination;

 

(b)               if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;

 

(c)                a notice to the effect that, if the carriage involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers in respect of loss of or damage to baggage.

 

(2)        The baggage check shall constitute prima facie evidence of the registration of the baggage and of the conditions of the contract of carriage.  The absence, irregularity or loss of the baggage check does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, none the less, be subject to the rules of this Convention.  Nevertheless, if the carrier takes charge of the baggage without a baggage check having been delivered or if the baggage check (unless combined with or incorporated in the passenger ticket which complies with the provisions of Article 3, paragraph (1)(c)) does not include the notice required by paragraph (1)(c) of this Article, he shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22, paragraph (2).

 

SECTION 3 ? AIR WAYBILL

 

Article 5

 

(1)        Every carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out and hand over to him a document called an "air waybill"; every consignor has the right to require the carrier to accept this document.

 

(2)        The absence, irregularity or loss of this document does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, subject to the provisions of Article 9, be none the less governed by the rules of this Convention.

 

Article 6

 

(1)        The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in three original parts and be handed over with the cargo.

 

(2)        The first part shall be marked "for the carrier", and shall be signed by the consignor.  The second part shall be marked "for the consignee"; it shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier and shall accompany the cargo.  The third part shall be signed by the carrier and handed by him to the consignor after the cargo has been accepted.

 

(3)        The carrier shall sign prior to the loading of the cargo on board the aircraft.

 

(4)        The signature of the carrier may be stamped; that of the consignor may be printed or stamped.

 

(5)        If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out the air waybill, he shall be deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor.

 

Article 7

 

The carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out separate waybills when there is more than one package.

 

Article 8

 

The air waybill shall contain:

 

(a)                an indication of the places of departure and destination;

 

(b)               if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;

 

(c)                a notice to the consignor to the effect that, if the carriage involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers in respect of loss of or damage to cargo.

 

Article 9

 

If, with the consent of the carrier, cargo is loaded on board the aircraft without an air waybill having been made out, or if the air waybill does not include the notice required by Article 8, paragraph (c), the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22, paragraph (2).

 

 

 

Article 10

 

(1)               The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statements relating to the cargo which he inserts in the air waybill.

 

(2)               The consignor shall indemnify the carrier against all damage suffered by him, or by any other person to whom the carrier is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statements furnished by the consignor.

 

Article 11

 

(1)        The air waybill is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the receipt of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage.

 

(2)        The statements in the air waybill relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the cargo, as well as those relating to the number of packages, are prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to the quantity, volume and condition of the cargo do not constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they both have been, and are stated in the air waybill to have been, checked by him in the presence of the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the cargo.

 

Article 12

 

(1)        Subject to his liability to carry out all his obligations under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right to dispose of the cargo by withdrawing it at the aerodrome of departure or destination, or by stopping it in the course of the journey on any landing, or by calling for it to be delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the journey to a person other than the consignee named in the air waybill, or by requiring it to be returned to the aerodrome of departure.  He must not exercise this right of disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or other consignors and he must repay any expenses occasioned by the exercise of this right.

 

(2)        It is impossible to carry out the orders of the consignor the carrier must so inform him forthwith.

 

(3)        If the carrier obeys the orders of the consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring the production of the part of the air waybill delivered to the latter, he will be liable, without prejudice to his right of recovery from the consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air waybill.

 

(4)        The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article 13.  Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the waybill or the cargo, or if he cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes his right of disposition.

 

Article 13

 

(1)        Except in the circumstances set out in the preceding Article, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to hand over to him the air waybill and to deliver the cargo to him, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage set out in the air waybill.

 

(2)        Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo arrives.

 

(3)        If the carrier admits the loss of the cargo, or if the cargo has not arrived at the expiration of seven days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the consignee is entitled to put into force against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.

 

Article 14

 

The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all the rights given them by Articles 12 and 13, each in his own name whether he is acting in his own interest or in the interest of another, provided that he carries out the obligations imposed by the contract.

 

Article 15

 

(1)        Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations of the consignor or the consignee with each other or the mutual relations of third parties whose rights are derived either from the consignor or from the consignee.

 

(2)        The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be varied by express provision in the air waybill.

 

(3)        Nothing in this Convention prevents the issue of a negotiable air waybill.

 

Article 16

 

(1)        The consignor must furnish such information and attach to the air waybill such documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of customs, octroi or police before the cargo can be delivered to the consignee.  The consignor is liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such information or documents, unless the damage is due to the fault of the carrier or his servants or agents.

 

(2)        The carrier is under no obligation to enquire into the correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents.

 

CHAPTER III

 

LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER

 

Article 17

 

The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking.

 

Article 18

 

(1)        The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or of damage to, any registered baggage or any cargo, if the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.

 

(2)        The carriage by air within the meaning of the preceding paragraph comprises the period during which the baggage or cargo is in charge of the carrier, whether in an aerodrome or on board an aircraft, or, in the case of a landing outside an aerodrome, in any place whatsoever.

 

(3)        The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any carriage by land, by sea or by river performed outside an aerodrome.  If, however, such a carriage takes place in the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the purpose of loading, delivery or transhipment, any damage is presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the result of an event which took place during the carriage by air.

 

Article 19

 

The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo.

 

Article 20

 

The carrier is not liable if  he proves that he and his servants or agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for him or them to take such measures.

 

Article 21

 

If the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the injured person the court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability.

 

Article 22

 

(1)        In the carriage of persons the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand francs.  Where, in accordance with the law of the court seised of the case, damages may be awarded in the form of periodical payments the equivalent capital value of the said payments shall not exceed two hundred and fifty thousand francs.  Nevertheless, by special contract, the carrier and the passenger may agree to a higher limit of liability.

 

(2)        (a)        In the carriage of registered baggage and of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of two hundred and fifty francs per kilogramme, unless the passenger or consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination, and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires.  In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that that sum is greater than the passenger's or consignor's actual interest in delivery at destination.

 

(b)        In the case of loss, damage or delay of part of registered baggage or cargo, or of any object contained therein, the weight to be taken into consideration in determining the amount to which the carrier's liability is limited shall be only the total weight of the package or packages concerned.  Nevertheless, when the loss, damage or delay of a part of the registered baggage or cargo, or of an object contained therein, affects the value of other packages covered by the same baggage check or the same air waybill, the total weight of such package or packages shall also be taken into consideration in determining the limit of liability.

 

(3)        As regards objects of which the passenger takes charge himself the liability of the carrier is limited to five thousand francs per passenger.

 

(4)        The limits prescribed in this Article shall not prevent the court from awarding, in accordance with its own law, in addition, the whole or part of the court costs and of the other expenses of the litigation incurred by the plaintiff.  The foregoing provision shall not apply if the amount of the damages awarded, excluding court costs and other expenses of the litigation, does not exceed the sum which the carrier has offered in writing to the plaintiff within a period of six months from the date of the occurrence causing the damage, or before the commencement of the action, if that is later.

 

(5)        The sums mentioned in francs in this Article shall be deemed to refer to a currency unit consisting of sixty?five and a half milligrams of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred.  These sum may be converted into national currencies in round figures.  Conversion of the sums into national currencies other than gold shall, in case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the gold value of such currencies at the date of the judgment.

 

Article 23

 

(1)        Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.

 

(2)        Paragraph (1) of this Article shall not apply to provisions governing loss or damage resulting from the inherent defect, quality or vice of the cargo carried.

 

Article 24

 

(1)        In the cases covered by Articles 18 and 19 any action for damages, however founded, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits set out in this Convention.

 

(2)        In the cases covered by Article 17 the provisions of the preceding pragraph also apply, without prejudice to the question as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights.

 

 

Article 25

 

The limits of liability specified in Article 22 shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, his servants or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result; provided that, in the case of such act or omission of a servant or agent, it is also proved that he was acting within the scope of his employment.

 

Article 25A

 

(1)        If an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier arising out of damage to which this Convention relates, such servant or agent, if he proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, shall be entitled to avail himself of the limits of liability which that carrier himself is entitled to invoke under Article 22.

 

(2)        The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, his servants and agents, in that case, shall not exceed the said limits.

 

(3)        The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.

 

Article 26

 

(1)        Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of baggage or cargo without complaint is prima facie evidence that the same has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the document of carriage.

 

(2)        In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within seven days from the date of receipt in the case of baggage and fourteen days from the date of receipt in the case of cargo.  In the case of delay the complaint must be made at the latest within twenty?one days from the date on which the baggage or cargo have been placed at his disposal.

 

(3)        Every complaint must be made in writing upon the document of carriage or by separate notice in writing despatched within the times aforesaid.

 

(4)        Failing complaint within the times aforesaid, no action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of fraud on his part.

 

Article 27

 

In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention against those legally representing his estate.

 

Article 28

 

(1)        An action for damages must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, either before the court having jurisdiction where the carrier is ordinarily resident, or has his principal place of business, or has an establishment by which the contract has been made or before the court having jurisdiction at the place of destination.

 

(2)        Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the court seised of the case.

 

Article 29

 

(1)        The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.

 

(2)        The method of calculating the period of limitation shall be determined by the law of the court seised of the case.

 

Article 30

 

(1)        In the case of carriage to be performed by various successive carriers and falling within the definition set out in the third paragraph of Article 1, each carrier who accepts passengers, baggage or cargo is subjected to the rules set out in this Convention, and is deemed to be one of the contracting parties to the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed under his supervision.

 

(2)        In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or his representative can take action only against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred, save in the case where, by express agreement, the first carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.

 

(3)        As regards baggage or cargo, the passenger or consignor will have a right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will have a right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the construction, loss, damage or delay took place.  These carriers will be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.

 

CHAPTER IV

 

PROVISIONS RELATING TO COMBINED CARRIAGE

 

Article 31

 

(1)        In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of this Convention apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage by air falls within the terms of Article 1.

 

(2)        Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are observed as regards the carriage by air.

 

CHAPTER V

GENERAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS

 

Article 32

 

Any clause contained in the contract and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null and void.  Nevertheless for the carriage of cargo arbitration clauses are allowed, subject to this Convention, if the arbitration is to take place within one of the jurisdictions referred to in the first paragraph of Article 28.

 

Article 33

 

Nothing contained in this Convention shall prevent the carrier either from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage, or from making regulations which do not conflict with the provisions of this Convention.

 

Article 34

 

The provisions of Articles 3 to 9 inclusive relating to documents of carriage shall not apply in the case of carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the normal scope of an air carrier's business.

 

Article 35

 

The expression "days" when used in this Convention means current days not working days.

 

Article 40A

 

(1)   [This paragraph is not reproduced.  It defines "High Contracting Party.]

 

(2)               For the purposes of the Convention the word territory means not only the metropolitan territory of a State but also all other territories for the foreign relations of which that State is responsible.

 

[Articles 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 and the concluding words of the Convention are not reproduced.  They deal with the deposition and coming into force of the Convention.]

 

ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

 

(With reference to Article 2)

 

The High Contracting Parties reserve to themselves the right to declare at the time or ratification or of accession that the first paragraph of Article 2 of this Convention shall not apply to international carriage by air performed directly by the State, its colonies, protectorates or mandated territories or by any other territory under its sovereignty, suzerainty or authority.

 

Second Annex to Schedule 1

 

PROVISIONS AS TO LIABILITY OF CARRIER IN THE

EVENT OF THE DEATH OF A PASSENGER

 

1       (1)        The liability shall be enforceable for the benefit of such of the members of the passenger's family as sustained damage by reason of his death.

 

(2)        For the purposes of this paragraph the following shall be taken to be the members of the passenger's family that is to say, the passenger's wife or husband, parents, grandparents, children and grandchildren and any person who is, or is the issue of, a brother, sister, uncle or aunt of the passenger.

 

(3)   In deducing any relationship for the purposes of this paragraph ?

 

(a)                an adopted person shall be treated as the child of the person or persons by whom he was adopted and not as the child of any other person; and, subject thereto.

 

(b)               any relationship by affinity shall be treated as a relationship by consanguinity, any relationship of the half blood as a relationship of the whole blood, and the step?child of any person as his child; and

 

(c)                an illegitimate person shall be treated as a legitimate child of his mother and reputed father.

 

2       Subject to the provisions of this schedule, an action to enforce the liability may be brought by the personal representative of the passenger or by any person for whose benefit the liability is under the last preceding paragraph enforceable, but only one action shall be brought in respect of the death of any one passenger and every such action by whomsoever brought shall be for the benefit of all such persons entitled as aforesaid as either are domiciled in Seychelles, or, not being domiciled there, express a desire to take the benefit of this action.

 

3       Subject to the provisions of this schedule, the amount recovered in any such action, after deducting any costs not recoverable from the defendant, shall be divided between the persons entitled in such proportions as the court (or, where the action is tried with a jury, the jury) direct.

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

[Article 5]

ADAPTED AND MODIFIED PROVISIONS OF ACT OF 1962

 

1.      (1)        The provisions of the Guadalajara Convention as set out in the Annex to this schedule, shall, so far as they relate to the rights and liabilities of carriers, carriers' servants and agents, passengers, consignors, consignees and other persons, and subject to the provisions of this schedule, have the force of law in Seychelles in relation to any carriage by air to which the Guadalajara Convention applies, irrespective of the nationality of the aircraft performing that carriage.

 

2.      (1)        (b)        In the Annex to this schedule the Warsaw Convention means the amended Convention.

 

(2)        In Articles VII and VIII in the Annex to this schedule "court" includes (in an arbitration allowed by the amended Convention or by Article IX.3 in the said schedule) an arbitrator.

 

3.      (1)        In paragraph (a) of subsection (1) and in subsections (2) and (3) of section 4 of the Act of 1961 references to Article 22 shall include, subject to any necessary modifications, references to Article VI in the Annex to this schedule.

 

(2)        In section 5 of the Act of 1961 (which limits the time of bringing proceedings against a carrier's servant or agent and to obtain contribution from a carrier) references to a carrier include references to an actual carrier as defined in paragraph (c) of Article 1 in the Annex to this schedule as well as to a contracting carrier as defined in paragraph (b) of that Article.

 

(3)        In section 8 of the Act of 1961 (which relates to actions against States brought in an Overseas Territory in accordance with Article 28 in the First Annex to this schedule) the reference to Article 28 shall include a reference to Article VIII in the Annex to this schedule.

 

6.      This Act shall bind the Republic.

 

Annex to Schedule 2

 

THE GUADALAJARA CONVENTION

 

Article I

 

In this Convention:

 

(a)     "contracting carrier" means a person who as a principal makes an agreement for carriage governed by the Warsaw Convention with a passenger or consignor or with a person acting on behalf of the passenger or consignor;

 

(b)     "actual carrier" means a person, other than the contracting carrier, who, by virtue of authority from the contracting carrier, performs the whole or part of the carriage contemplated in paragraph (a) but who is not with respect to such part a successive carrier within the meaning of the Warsaw Convention.  Such authority is presumed in the absence of proof to the contrary.

 

Article II

 

If an actual carrier performs the whole or part of carriage which, according to the agreement referred to in Article I, paragraph (a), is governed by the Warsaw Convention, both the contracting carrier and the actual carrier shall, except as otherwise provided in this Convention, be subject to the rules of the Warsaw Convention, the former for the whole of the carriage contemplated in the agreement, the later solely for the carriage which he performs.

 

Article III

 

1.      The acts and omissions of the actual carrier and of his servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the contracting carrier.

 

2.      The acts and omissions of the actual carrier and of his servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the actual carrier.  Nevertheless, no such act of omission shall subject the actual carrier to liability exceeding the limits specified in Article 22 of the Warsaw Convention.  Any special agreement under which the contracting carrier assumes obligations not imposed by the Warsaw Convention or any waiver of rights conferred by that Convention or any special declaration of interest in delivery at destination contemplated in Article 22 of the said Convention, shall not affect the actual carrier unless agreed to by him.

 

Article IV

 

Any complaint to be made or order to be given under the Warsaw Convention to the carrier shall have the same effect whether addressed to the contracting carrier or to the actual carrier.  Nevertheless, orders referred to in Article 12 of the Warsaw Convention shall only be effective if addressed to the contracting carrier.

 

Article V

 

In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, any servant or agent of that carrier or of the contracting carrier shall, if he proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, be entitled to avail himself of the limits of liability which are applicable under this Convention to the carrier whose servant or agent he is unless it is proved that he acted in a manner which, under the Warsaw Convention, prevents the limits of liability from being invoked.

 

Article VI

 

In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, the aggregate of the amounts recoverable from that carrier and the contracting carrier, and from their servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment, shall not exceed the highest amount which could be awarded against either the contracting carrier or the actual carrier under this Convention, but none of the persons mentioned shall be liable for a sum in excess of the limit applicable to him.

 

Article VII

 

In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, an action for damages may be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, against that carrier or the contracting carrier, or against both together or separately.  If the action is brought against only one of those carriers, the carrier shall have the right to require the other carrier to be joined in the proceedings, the procedure and effects being governed by the law of the court seised of the case.

 

Article VIII

 

Any action for damages contemplated in Article VII of this Convention must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, either before a court in which an action may be brought against the contracting carrier, as provided in Article 28 of the Warsaw Convention, or before the court having jurisdiction at the place where the actual carrier is ordinarily resident or has his principal place of business.

 

Articel IX

 

1.      Any contractual provision tending to relieve the contracting carrier or the actual carrier of liability under this Convention or to fix a lower limit than that which is applicable according to this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole agreement, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.

 

2.      In respect of the carriage performed by the actual carrier, the preceding paragraph shall not apply to contractual provisions governing loss or damage resulting from the inherent defect, quality or vice of the cargo carried.

 

3.      Any clause contained in an agreement for carriage and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction shall be null and void.  Nevertheless, for the carriage of cargo arbitration clauses are allowed, subject to this Convention, if the arbitration is to take place in one of the jurisdictions referred to in Article VIII.

 

Article X

 

Except as provided in Article VII, nothing in this Convention shall affect the rights and obligations of the two carriers between themselves.

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

(This Note is not part of the Order.)

 

This Order is made under the powers conferred by the Carriage by Air Act 1961 and the Carriage by Air (Supplementary Provisions) Act 1962 of the United Kingdom.  The former Act gives effect to the Warsaw Convention as amended at the Hague and the latter Act gives effect to the Guadalajara Convention.  The Order extends certain provisions of the two Acts, with adaptations and modifications, and the rules of both Conventions relating to international carriage by air, to Seychelles.