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Business Tax (Double Taxation Agreement) (No. 4) Regulations, 2004 (Statutory Instrument 36 of 2004)

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This is the latest version of this legislation commenced on 08 Nov 2017.

Seychelles

Business Tax Act, 2009

Business Tax (Double Taxation Agreement) (No. 4) Regulations, 2004

Statutory Instrument 36 of 2004

  • Commenced on 14 April 2006

  • [This is the version of this document at 8 November 2017.]


[SI 36 of 2004]


1. Citation

These Regulations may be cited as the Business Tax (Double Taxation Agreement) (No. 4) Regulations, 2004.

2. Declaration and effect of Agreement

It is hereby declared that the Government of the Republic of Seychelles and the Government of the Republic of the Kingdom of Thailand have entered into the Agreement specified in the Schedule for the purposes of avoidance of double taxation and prevention of fiscal evasion and that the Agreement shall have effect in relation to the tax imposed under this Act.


Schedule

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Seychelles and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income

The Government of the Republic of Seychelles and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand,Desiring to conclude an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income, and to promote and strengthen the economic relations between the two countries,HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

Article 1
Personal scope

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2
Taxes covered

1.This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
2.There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.
3.The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular—
(a)In Thailand—the income tax; andthe petroleum income tax;(hereinafter referred to as “Thai Tax”);
(b)In Seychelles—the business tax; andthe petroleum income tax;(hereinafter referred to as “Seychelles tax”).
4.The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3
General definitions

1.For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires—
(a)the term “Thailand” means the Kingdom of Thailand and includes maritime area adjacent to the territorial sea of the Kingdom of Thailand which by Thai legislation, and in accordance with the international law, has been or may hereafter be designated as an area within which the rights of the Kingdom of Thailand with respect to the sea-bed and subsoil and their natural resources may be exercised;
(b)the term “Seychelles” means the territory of the Republic of Seychelles and includes its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf where Seychelles exercises exclusive jurisdiction with regards to tax laws and regulations in conformity with the provisions of the United Nations convention on the laws of the sea;
(c)the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” means Thailand or Seychelles as the context requires;
(d)the term “person” includes an individual, an undivided estate, a company, a trust, a fund and any other body of persons as well as any entity treated as a taxable unit under the taxation laws in force in either Contracting State;
(e)the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
(f)the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
(g)the terms “tax” means Thai tax or Seychelles tax as the context requires;
(h)the term “national” means—(i)any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;(ii)any legal person, partnership, association and any other entity deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
(i)the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State; and
(j)the term “competent authority” means, in the case of Thailand, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative, and, in the case of Seychelles, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative.
2.As regards the application of the Agreement by a Contracting State any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the law of the State concerning the taxes to which the Agreement applies.

Article 4
Resident

1.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of incorporation, place of management or any other criteria of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any local authority thereof. But this term does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.
2.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows—
(a)he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
(b)if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
(c)if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
(d)if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.
3.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which it is incorporated. If the person under the foregoing criteria is still a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which its place of effective management is situated, If the State in which its place of effective management is situated cannot be determined, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

Article 5
Permanent establishment

1.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
2.The term “permanent establishment” includes especially—
(a)a place of management;
(b)a branch;
(c)an office;
(d)a factory;
(e)a workshop;
(f)a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources;
(g)a warehouse, in relation to a person providing storage facilities for others;
(h)a building site, a construction, installation or assembly project or supervisory activity in connection therewith, where such site, project or activity continues for a period of more than six (6) months;
(i)the furnishing of services including consultancy services by a resident of one of the Contracting States through employees or other personnel, where activities of that nature continue for the same or a connected project within the other Contracting State for a period or periods aggregating more than six (6) months within any twelve - month (12-month) period.
3.Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include—
(a)the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display;
(c)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
(d)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of advertising, for the supply of information, for scientific research or for similar activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character, for the enterprise.
4.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 5 applies - is acting in a Contracting State, on behalf of the enterprise of the other Contracting State, the enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State, if such a person—
(a)has and habitually exercises in the first-mentioned State, an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise; unless his activities are limited to the purchase of goods or merchandise for the enterprise;
(b)has and no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock wholly of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise from which he regularly fills orders or makes deliveries on behalf of the enterprise;
(c)has no such authority, but habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned State wholly or almost wholly for the enterprise or for the enterprise and other enterprises which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it; or
(d)manufactures or processes in the first-mentioned Contracting State for the enterprise goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise.
5.An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise or on behalf of that enterprise and other enterprises, which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it, he will not be considered an agent of independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.
6.The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6
Income from immovable property

1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2.The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture, forestry and fishery rights, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposit, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
3.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.
4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7
Business profits

1.Income or profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, income or profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
2.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the income or profits which it might be expected to make if it was a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
3.In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the business of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
4.If the information available to the taxation authority of a Contracting State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment of an enterprise, nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law of that State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person provided that law shall be applied, so far as the information available to the taxation authority permits, consistently with the principles of this Article.
5.No income or profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
6.For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, income or profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
7.Where income or profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this article.

Article 8
Income or profits from shipping and air transport

1.Income or profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
2.Income or profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships in international traffic may be taxed in the other Contracting State, but the tax composed in that other State shall be reduced by an amount equal to fifty (50) per cent thereof.
3.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to income or profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9
Associated enterprises

1.Where—
(a)an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
(b)the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any income or profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the income or profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2.Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State, and taxes accordingly, profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits in accordance with the taxation laws of that other State. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of the Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States may, if necessary, consult each other.
3.A Contracting State shall not change the profits of an enterprise in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 2 after the expiry of the time limits provided in its tax laws.

Article 10
Dividends

1.Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2.However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed ten (10) per cent of the gross amount of the dividends.This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
3.The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, mining shares, founders‘ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
5.Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives income or profits from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company‘s undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of income or profits arising in such other State. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing income tax, according to the laws of that State, on the disposal of profits made by a permanent establishment situated therein.

Article 11
Interest

1.Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2.However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed—
(a)ten (10) per cent of the gross amount of the interest if it is received by any financial institution (including an insurance company);
(b)fifteen (15) per cent of the gross amount of the interest in other cases.
3.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to the Government of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State.For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “Government”—
(a)in the case of Thailand, means the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and shall include—
(i)the Bank of Thailand;
(ii)the Export-Import Bank of Thailand;
(iii)the Government Savings Bank;
(iv)the Government Housing Bank;
(v)the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives;
(vi)any Ministry or Department thereof;
(vii)any local authority or statutory body;
(viii)any body corporate wholly owned by the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand; and
(ix)any institutions as may be agreed from time to time between the Contracting States;
(b)in the case of Seychelles means the Government of the Republic of Seychelles and shall include—
(i)the Central Bank of Seychelles;
(ii)Development Bank of Seychelles;
(iii)The Seychelles Savings Bank; and
(iv)The Seychelles International Mercantile Banking Corporation Ltd.
4.The term “interest” as used in this Article means income, from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor‘s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income assimilated to income from money lent by the taxation laws of the Contracting State in which the income arises.
5.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
6.Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
7.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 12
Royalties

1.Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2.However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed fifteen (15) per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.
3.The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the alienation of or the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films, or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such cases the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
5.Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
6.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
Capital gains

1.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2.Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
3.Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.
4.Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article and paragraph 3 of Article 12, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent either Contracting State from taxing the gains or income from the sale or transfer of shares or other securities.

Article 14
Income from independent personal services

1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless such services are performed in the other Contracting State and such individual has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base. For the purposes of this Agreement, where an individual who is a resident of Contracting State stays in the other Contracting State for period or periods exceeding in the aggregate one hundred eighty three (183) days in any twelve-month (12-month) period commencing or ending in the fiscal or calendar year concerned, he shall be deemed to have a fixed base regularly available to him in that other State and the income that is derived from his activities that are performed in that other State shall be attributable to that fixed base.
2.The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, dentists, lawyers, engineers, architects and accountants.

Article 15
Income from dependent personal services

1.Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
2.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if—
(a)the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate one hundred eighty-three (183) days within any twelve-month (12-month) period, and
(b)the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
(c)the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
3.Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic, by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 16
Director's fees

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as, or on behalf of, a member of the board of directors or any other similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17
Income of artistes and sports persons

1.Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
2.Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.
3.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply to income derived from activities performed by an entertainer or a sportsperson, or provided by an enterprise of a Contracting State in a Contracting State if the visit to that Contracting State, or the enterprise providing the activities, as the case may be, is substantially supported by public fund of the other Contracting State, including any local authority or statutory body thereof.

Article 18
Pensions

1.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.
2.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in the other Contracting State if such payments are borne by an enterprise of that other State or by a permanent establishment situated therein.

Article 19
Governmental function

1.
(a)Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b)However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who—
(i)is a national of that State; or
(ii)did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
2.
(a)Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b)However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.
3.The provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof.

Article 20
Payments to students and trainees

An individual who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and whose visit to the first-mentioned Contracting State is solely for the purpose of—

(a)studying at a university or other recognized educational institution; or
(b)securing training to qualify him to practice a profession or trade; or
(c)studying or carrying out research as a recipient of a grant, allowance or award from a governmental, religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational organisation;

shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State on—

(i)remittances from abroad for the purposes of his maintenance, education, study, research or training;
(ii)the grant, allowance or award; and
(iii)income from personal services rendered in that State provided the income constitutes earnings reasonably necessary for his maintenance and education.

Article 21
Payments to professors, teachers and researchers

1.An individual, who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State, and who, at the invitation of any university, college, school or other similar educational institution, which is recognised by the competent authority in the first-mentioned Contracting State, visits that first-mentioned Contracting State for a period not exceeding two (2) years from the date that individual first visits that first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of teaching, giving lectures and carrying out researches at such educational institution, shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State on any remuneration for such activities.
2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income from researching if such research is undertaken by the individual primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

Article 22
Other income

1.Items of income beneficially owned by a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in foregoing Articles of this Agreement, shall be taxable only in that State.
2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6 if the beneficial owner of the income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the income is attributable to such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 23
Elimination of double taxation

1.When income or profits are subject to tax in both Contracting States, relief from double taxation shall be given in accordance with the following paragraphs of this Article.
2.Tax payable in a Contracting State in respect of income or profits derived in that State shall be allowed as a credit against any tax payable in the other Contracting State in respect of that income or profits. The credit shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax payable in the other Contracting State as computed before the credit is given, which is appropriate to such item of income or profits.
3.For the purpose of allowance as a credit in a Contracting State the tax paid in the other Contracting State shall be deemed to include the tax which is otherwise payable in that other State but has been reduced or waived in accordance with special incentive laws designed to promote economic development in that other State.

Article 24
Non-discrimination

1.Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.
2.The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.
3.Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which, other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.
4.The provisions of this Article shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
5.The provisions of this Article shall only apply to the taxes which are the subject of this Agreement.

Article 25
Mutual agreement procedure

1.Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic laws of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three (3) years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.
2.The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement, with the competent authority of the other Contracting State with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement.
3.The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.
4.The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purposes of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 26
Exchange of information

1.The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Agreement in so far as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals relation to, the taxes covered by the Agreement. Such persons authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
2.In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation—
(a)to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
(b)to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
(c)to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

Article 27
Members of diplomatic missions and consular posts

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 28
Entry into force

1.The Contracting States shall notify each other in writing of the completion of the internal procedures required for the bringing into force of this Agreement.
2.The Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the fatter of the notifications mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article and its provisions shall have effect—
(a)in respect of taxes with held at the source, to income derived on or after 1 January in the year next following that in which the Agreement enters into force; and
(b)in respect of other taxes on income, for taxable years or accounting periods beginning on or after 1 January in the year next following that in which the Agreement enters into force.

Article 29
Termination

This Agreement shall remain in force indefinitely, but either of the Contracting States may, on or before 30th June in any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of ten (10) years from the date of its entry into force, give to the other Contracting State, through diplomatic channels, written notice of termination.In such event the Agreement shall cease to have effect—

(a)in respect of taxes withheld at the source, to income derived on or after 1st January in which the notice of termination is given on or after 1st January in the year next following that in which the notice is given;
(b)in respect of other taxes on income, for taxable years or accounting periods beginning on or after 1st January in the year next following that in which the notice of termination is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.Done in duplicate at Bangkok on this 26th day of April, Two Thousand and One year of the Christian Era, in the English language._________________________For the Government of the Republic of SeychellesMr. Sylvestre RadegondeAmbassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Seychelles________________________For the Government of the Kingdom of ThailandMr. Surakiart SathirathaiMinister of Foreign Affairs